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In 538 BCE, Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon and took over its empire.Cyrus issued a proclamation granting subjugated nations, including the people of Judah, religious freedom (for the original text, which corroborates the biblical narrative only in very broad terms, see the Cyrus Cylinder).An Israelite revolt (724–722 BCE) was crushed after the siege and capture of Samaria by the Assyrian king Sargon II.
The notion of the "Land of Israel", known in Hebrew as Eretz Yisrael, has been important and sacred to the Jewish people since Biblical times.
Assyrian records say he leveled 46 walled cities and besieged Jerusalem, leaving after receiving extensive tribute.
In 586 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah.
However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed.
The population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,664,750 people.