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Empty Gatorade bottles are lighter but don’t last as long.
Two flashlights with new batteries: Flashlights with two AA-cell alkaline batteries are good. The “coal miner’s” head mounted flashlight provides hands free use, but weighs more.
Arbitrary numbers (like 30% of his body weight) are interesting starting points for discussion, but the real determination is how much he can carry on the practice hikes.
It is listed so you can see how much you can save if you are careful.
Some backpacks are waterproof, but like a tent, the seams need to be sealed.
Check your cover, or backpack, for “waterproofness” prior to the trek.
Sleeping Pad & Pillow: A closed-cell type foam pad (e.g., insolite or the accordion style by Z-Rest work well) is good to keep out the cold and to preserve the sleeping bag.
Shorter length pads can be purchased, or longer pads can be cut, to reduce the amount of bulk and weight (head to knee length is sufficient).