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Netherlands New Guinea was transferred to Indonesia in 1963.) was a Dutch colony.
It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800.
This colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule, The term Indonesia came into use for the geographical location after 1880.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the balance of military power shifted towards the industrialising Dutch and against pre-industrial independent indigenous Indonesian polities as the technology gap widened.
Military leaders and Dutch politicians believed they had a moral duty to free the native Indonesian peoples from indigenous rulers who were considered oppressive, backward, or disrespectful of international law.
Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution.
The Netherlands formally recognised Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea (Western New Guinea), which was ceded to Indonesia only in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement.