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The latter takes a similar approach to understanding natural phenomena but includes the idea that “Five Phases” (each associated with metal, wood, water, fire, and earth, respectively) succeed one another in a never-ending cyclical process.
The amalgamation of Confucianism, ) were also common during this period and can be seen as part of the larger trend toward syncretization.
Both works look back to the ancient sage kings, the ways of the Zhou dynasty, and the teachings of the classics as models for their own troubled times.
Each work has been read as a subtle attack on the predominant political powers.
These tables often use a Five Phase cosmological framework in which things are organized analogically on the basis of their relevant associations, rather than on the basis of some discrete essence. Legend has it that these latter texts survived the book burnings of the Qin dynasty by lying concealed in the walls of the home of Confucius.
As can be seen in Yang Xiong’s , the correlations which form the basis of these classification systems can be bewildering - especially to anyone unfamiliar with the sorts of complex associations found in early Chinese culture. Generally speaking, the Old Text School was associated with the simpler, more pragmatic philosophy of Confucius’s native state of Lu, while the New Text school was associated with the often fantastic writings of Zou Yan (305-240 B. E.), a native of Qi and founder of the theories promoted by New Text adherents.
he was appointed to the humble office of “Gentleman in Attendance” and “Servitor at the Yellow Gate,” where he would remain until his final days.
Unlike Yang Xiong’s other works, the dating of the there is a reference to the Han dynasty as having ruled for 210 years. Whatever the date of completion, there is little doubt that the was written during a period when Wang Mang held in his hands the reigns of power and the destiny of his sovereign. In his autobiography, Yang Xiong notes that, just as he modeled his focus on the perennial Confucian theme of self-cultivation while emphasizing the importance of learning, friendship, role models, rites and music, and the human virtues.
Appended to both the commencement, maturity and decline.
The appraisals can also be divided into those that address the commoner, the noble, and the Emperor.
As noted, the most central of these are the perennial Confucian themes: self-cultivation, learning, the natural tendencies, the human virtues, the value of the classics, rites and music, the princely person, the sage, ruling, filial responsibility, and so forth.
One also finds in the (non-coercive action), minimizing desire, and withdrawing from public life.